Pamplona Bull Run (San Fermin)
History of the Pamplona Bull RunThe festival of San Fermin, or the Pamplona bull running as it's more commonly known outside Spain officially begins at midday on 6th July every year with the 'chupinazo' which takes place on the balcony of the Casa Consistorial in Pamplona. Thousands of people congregate in the square awaiting the mayor's official announcement that the fiestas have begun, a rocket is launched and the partying begins.
The history of the bullrunning in Pamplona is not clear. There is evidence of the festival from as far back as the 13th century when it seems the events took place in October as this coincided with the festival of San Fermin on October 10th. It seems that the modern day celebration has evolved from this as well as individual commercial and bullfighting fiestas which can be traced back to the 14th century.
Over many years the mainly religious festival of San Fermin was diluted by music, dancing, bullfights and markets such that the Pamplona Council proposed that the whole event be moved to July 7th when the weather is far more conducive to such a celebration. To this day San Fermin remains a fixed date every year with the first bullrun at 8am on July 7th and the last at the same time on July 14th.
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The joining together of the religious, commercial and bullfighting festivals and the move to July 7th led to the first official celebration of San Fermines in 1591. This inaugural fiesta was a low key affair in comparison to the modern day running of the bulls as it only lasted two days although there was much merriment involving music, a procession and a bullfight. dancing and fireworks became features of the festival over the next few years and the event was extended to July 10th.
By the 19th century all kinds of fairground attractions were making their way to Pamplona including human cannonballs and circus animals. The actual route of the bull run didn't have a double security wall as is the case today so the bulls were able to escape, creating caos in the streets of Pamplona.
It was thanks to the writing of American writer Ernest Hemingway that San Fermin developed the notoriety of today. The publication of his novel "The Sun Also Rises" in 1926 told the world about the Pamplona bull running festival which attracted people from all over the world to this annual festival. Such is the popularity of the event that overcrowding is a serious problem and if you're planning on staying there then you should book accommodation many months in advance.
The Bull RunThe Pamplona bull run takes place at 8am every morning from 7th to 14th July. Runners must be in the running area by 7.30am. The actual run stretches from the corral at Santo Domingo where the bulls are kept, to the bullring where they will fight that same afternoon. The length of the run is 825 metres and the average time of the run from start to finish is about three minutes. The streets through the old town which make up the bull run are walled off so the bulls can't escape. Each day six fighting bulls run the route as well as two herds of bullocks.
The tension builds as the release of the bulls approaches and at 8am on the dot a rocket is fired to confirm that the gate has been opened at the Santo Domingo corral. Runners dressed in white with a red hankerchief around their necks pray to San Fermin then a second rocket announces that the bulls have left. The bulls and the runners then proceed along the route.
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Route of the Bull RunFirst of all they climb Santo Domingo and go across the Ayuntamiento Square continuing down c/ Mercaderes. The most dangerous part of the bullrun approaches as there's a closed curve leading into c/ Estafeta which is the longest stretch of the run. Next comes a small section of c/ Duque de Ahumada which is known as the Telefónica stretch. The last stretch is also very risky as the route leads into a dead end street providing access to the Bull Ring.
See the Pamplona Bull Run Map ...
A third rocket is set off once all the bulls have entered the bullring and the fourth, and final, rocket means that the bulls are now in the bullpen and the bullrun has finished.
The vast number of people taking part in the bullrun nowadays adds to the already considerable danger of running alongside wild bulls weighing in the region of 700kg each. Too many drunks taking part also increase the risks for everybody. There are plenty security guards and first aid personnel but there is little they can do during the running of the bulls such that 15 people have died and over 200 been seriously injured since 1924.
Watching the Bull RunYou can stand behind the fences that mark the route of the bullrun but you need to arrive by around 6.30am to get the best spots on the top of the fence directly overlooking the run. Another good spot is in front of the museum on c/ Santo Domingo where there isn't a fence but the best spots here are usually taken before 6am leaving you with a cold two hour wait before the run starts.
A great alternative is to get yourself onto a balcony overlooking the bullrun. You might be lucky enough to meet someone who invites you onto their terrace, alternatively, ask in the tourist information office (c/ Esclava, 1). Your only other options are to go to the bullring and watch the end as the bulls arrive in the arena or to head for a bar and watch the bull run which is shown live every morning on national TV.
Bullfight TicketsTickets for the bullfights are sold out well in advance as the arena only holds 12,500 people. Every evening after the day's bullfight some tickets go on sale for the next evening's event at the 'taquillas' at the bull ring. You'll usually find ticket touts operating around the Plaza de Toros during the day and before the bullfight selling at elevated prices.
Pamplona AccommodationPamplona Hotels are very difficult to book at short notice. If you're planning on going for this event then consider booking upto twelve months in advance. An alternative to staying in Pamplona is to stay in a hotel in San Sebastian and make the early morning trip to the bull run from there.
WARNING from Pamplona Town Council ...As well as being the best known act of the Sanfermines the Bull Run is also the most dangerous. In order to ensure that the Run goes off successfully and to avoid danger it is advised that the spectators and runners bear in mind certain minimal rules which guarantee the normal running of the Bull Run.
For this reason it is expressly forbidden:1.- To admit anyone under the age of 18 into the course as minors are totally prohibited from running or participating. 2.- To go over the police barriers which the authorities see fit to erect.
3.- To place oneself in the zones and areas of the itinerary which are expressly indicated by the agents of the authorities.
4.- To hide oneself before the release of the bulls in corners, dead angles or doorways of houses or establishments located throughout the length of the course.
5.- To leave open the doors of the houses along the course, the owners or tenants of the said property being responsible for this.
6.- To enter into the route in a state of drunkenness, under the effects of drugs or in any inappropriate state.
7.- To carry objects which may impede the correct running of the Bull Run.
8.- To wear clothes or shoes which are not appropriate for the run.
9.- Call the animals or distract them in any way and for whatever reason in the course or during the rounding up in the Bull Ring.
10.- To stop in the Bull Run or station oneself on the walls or barriers or in the doorways in such a way as to impede the run or the defence of the runners.
11.- To grab onto, harass or mistreat the animals or obstruct their exit enclosure by any action during the amateur bullfight.
12.- To take photographs from the streets, walls or barriers without due authorisation.
13.- Any other action which may impede the normal running of the Bull Run.